Moist Deciduous Forests
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In Cantão, moist deciduous forest occurs wherever the ground is high enough to remain above peak flood levels in most years. It is lower in canopy height than the igapó forests, and its undergrowth is thicker and more entangled. It also displays high plant species diversity, including abundant epiphytes like orchids and bromeliads. Many of the plant species of this natural community are drawn from the nearby cerrado.

During the dry season, when up to 90 days can go by with no rain at all, many of the trees in the moist deciduous forest drop their leaves. During this season there is a considerable risk of fire, whether natural or caused by man. Natural fires due to lightning are quite common, but tend to be quickly put out by the ensuing rain.

During the annual floods, deciduous forests are the only places where there is dry ground. They become the only feeding grounds available for bird species like the Undulated Tinamou, the Bare-faced Curassow, and the several species of wild pigeon that occur in Cantão. Many mammal species that don't do well on trees or in flooded areas also seek refuge in these forests, which consequently become prime hunting ground for the park's two large terrestrial predators, the jaguar and the puma.